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Certain regions of the world were underrepresented in the multinational collaboration network, including Western and Central Asia, parts of Latin American and the Caribbean, and much of Animal behavior society. For example, there were no countries from Western Africa, and Israel was the sole country represented from Western and Central Asia.

Unsurprisingly, the structure of the collaboration network revealed several communities of strongly connected countries that appear to be based on geographic and regional effects (Fig. Interestingly, the United States and Canada cluster more strongly with Asian countries, such as Japan, China, and South Animal behavior society, than with European countries. Mexico, however, is found in a community that includes a number of Spanish speaking countries, such as Spain, Cuba, and Argentina.

Links between countries were weighted according to an index of the frequency with which scientists from those two countries coauthored papers. Clusters represent communities of countries (indicated by color) that tended to coauthor papers with one another more often animal behavior society with countries outside their cluster.

To statistically quantify drivers of animal behavior society linkages, we fit a multivariable exponential random graph model (ergm) to the network (19). Our model predicted that authors from two countries were more likely to coauthor papers together if the countries belonged to the same region (coefficient 1. The latter suggests that there is still a strong effect of colonial ties on scientific collaboration networks in agriculture.

In addition, we found that countries became more likely to collaborate with increasing annual trade in live pigs (SI Appendix, Table S4), and that this metric predicted linkages more strongly than overall trade. This suggests that commercial and supply chain linkages among countries also stimulate scientific collaboration.

This effect could also be interpreted in terms of biosecurity, where countries may be more motivated to conduct research on swine pathogens as part of efforts to quantify the risk of disease walks. New collaborations and data sharing models that are international in scope, span geographical regions, and break historical or language barriers will generate novel linkages and allow the field to take greater advantage of animal health data that is becoming bigger, richer, and more complex (20).

Our review provides a perspective on prioritized swine pathogens over the past 50 y, both regionally and globally. Using publication trends, we document shifting research priorities and place observed trends in the context of regional differences in swine health issues and changing practices in the swine industry.

However, an important limitation of this work is that while text-mining algorithms can provide rapid classification animal behavior society quantification of patterns within large bodies of scientific literature, such methods should not replace researcher scholarship. More detailed scrutiny of publications, such as strain-level information, identification of emerging pathogenic lineages, or categorization by area of research (e.

For this purpose, the annotated publication database is available at hdl. Our analysis suggests that more animal behavior society control and biosecurity measures animal behavior society with intensification have animal behavior society particularly effective animal behavior society controlling helminth, protozoal, and some bacterial diseases such as APP. However, current biosecurity methods have in large part been unsuccessful in controlling airborne viruses such as PRRS and influenza, and increases in production scale can be counterproductive in these cases.

Since current trends toward intensive production are unlikely to reverse, these production diseases will be an ongoing area animal behavior society research. Entex LQ (Guaifenesin and Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride Liquid)- FDA addition, potential zoonoses will continue to be a major focus, with antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens growing in importance.

We expect that the results of this scoping review will be useful to veterinarians, epidemiologists, risk analysts, industry organizations, governmental and international animal health agencies, swine production companies, and other groups that require a global outlook to create informed policies, investments, and risk-mitigation strategies in regards to swine health.

Given that pathogens are a primary constraint to global swine production and trade, our review is a step in building a more holistic picture of the animal behavior society pathogens cocirculating in swine populations in different regions of the world. Details of pathogen inclusion criteria are summarized in SI Appendix, section 1. PubMed searches were performed in R using the RISmed package, which was highly efficient due to the ability to write code to automate and streamline the search.

Scopus and ISI searches were performed manually, and publication information and abstracts were downloaded in. To create a data frame with the same structure as the PubMed searches.

Searches found 47,271, 58,635, and 103,809 documents in PubMed, Scopus, and ISI, respectively, not excluding duplicate documents.

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Comments:

14.07.2019 in 03:39 Пантелеймон:
Спасибо за статью.. Актуально мне сейчас.. Взяла себе еще перечитать.

14.07.2019 in 13:43 Сусанна:
Какие хорошие собеседники :)

22.07.2019 in 05:18 Майя:
Дискуссия о данном вопросе похоже пользуется большой популярностью в условиях финансового кризиса

22.07.2019 in 21:58 Розина:
Я извиняюсь, но, по-моему, Вы ошибаетесь. Могу это доказать. Пишите мне в PM, поговорим.