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These comorbidities may contribute to the burden of CM as assessed by productivity loss, impaired HRQoL, healthcare utilisation and emotional systeme In this study, we analysed data from the AMPP study to characterise and compare the sociodemographic profiles and the frequency of common comorbidities decision support systems journal adults with CM and EM in a large population-based sample.

The AMPP study is a longitudinal, population-based study based on an annual, mailed questionnaire. The AMPP study was conducted in two phases. In phase decjsion (screening), a self-administered questionnaire containing demographic, headache and other related questions was mailed in 2004 to a stratified random sample of 120 000 US households, drawn from a nationwide panel maintained by a US sampling firm.

Surveys were returned by 162 562 individuals from 77 879 decision support systems journal. Response rates were similar by gender, geographic region, population density and household income. Of the individual respondents, 30 721 reported at least one severe headache in the past year. Since 2005, these respondents have been surveyed on an annual basis. A cross-sectional analysis decision support systems journal the 2005 AMPP study data was utilised to assess differences between two groups of respondents: CM and EM.

To be classified as CM, a respondent had to meet ICHD-2 criteria for migraine headache and report an average of 15 or more headache days per month within the past 3 months. Episodic migraine (EM) was defined as respondents meeting ICHD-2 criteria for migraine headache and reporting an average of 14 or fewer headache days per month within the past 3 months. The 2005 AMPP survey was decision support systems journal self-administered questionnaire comprising 60 items assessing demographics, headache characteristics, frequency, psychologist forensic, other necessary information to assign an ICHD-II diagnosis, comorbidities, headache-related burden, impact on work and other aspects of life, health-related quality of life and other information of interest.

The survey gathered defision on respondents' three most severe types of decision support systems journal. For most questions such as age, respondents were only allowed to provide a single response. For employment status, respondents were instructed to endorse all applicable responses. All conditions (other than depression) were based on decision support systems journal of a physician diagnosis (SRPD).

Depression was measured both by self-report and using the Patient Health Decision support systems journal module roche valium a validated measure of Major Depressive Disorder based on DSM-IV criteria.

Respondents with a score of 10 or more (the highest three categories of depressive symptomology) were categorised as having depression. Effects of income were decision support systems journal for age and gender, while the effects of education, pfizer wyeth, insurance and marital statuses were adjusted for age, gender and income.

All models were parameterised such that the variable listed was polivy from CM and EM in a single model. Reference coding was employed in order to contrast EM and CM in their level, rate of use or probability of decsion dependent variable.

For every analysis, EM was the reference group. A p value of 0. Binary variables (ie, decision support systems journal status) were modelled using logistic decision support systems journal. Ordered variables (ie, education level and income) were modelled using ordered logistic regression.

For these effects, ORs indicate how supporh groups differ in the probability of a higher response category. Normally decision support systems journal variables (ie, BMI) were modelled using ANOVA, which contrasts the mean difference in the dependent variable between the contrasted groups. Comorbid conditions were modelled as dichotomous outcomes in logistic regressions adjusting the EM versus CM contrast for age, gender and income. For these comparisons, the reported CIs and the corresponding p values were presented.

Depression was decision support systems journal both by self-report and through a validated questionnaire. Agreement between the two measures was examined using Tetrachoric decision support systems journal. Of 24 000 headache sufferers surveyed in 2005, 18 500 respondents aged 18 and older returned questionnaires.

Decision support systems journal respondents who provided complete data necessary to assign a diagnosis and headache frequency, 655 respondents met criteria for CM and 11 249 met criteria for EM (table 1). There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender. In comparison with EM, respondents with CM were older (CM 47. Respondents with CM were twice as likely to have depression as measured by the PHQ-9 (CM 30.

Respiratory disorders were also more often associated with CM (figure 2, table 2). COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cardiovascular risk factors including high blood pressure (CM 33. It dimetindene previously been demonstrated that CM is more disabling and burdensome than EM in terms of migraine-related disability,5 HRQoL,6 healthcare costs and treatment utilisation. CM respondents were less likely to be employed full time, and more lioresal to be occupationally disabled.

Differences in SES glandular fever may reflect factors associated with progression from EM to CM. Due to the cross-sectional design of this study, it is not clear if the inverse relationship with SES suppprt social selection (downward drift) or Ketoconazole (Xolegel)- Multum causation (factors associated with low SES sjstems increase risk of progression).

This question will be explored in future longitudinal analyses. In fact, depression, chronic bronchitis, and ulcers were approximately twice as likely and chronic pain was 2. Our findings of increased ORs for CM decision support systems journal similar to those reported in other population-based studies. Zwart et al20 reported that the odds of depression systmes as headache frequency increased.

They found that in comparison with control subjects without migraine, the odds of depression in migraine sufferers occurring on seven or fewer days per month was logo astrazeneca. While we do not have a control sample available for comparison in our study, we found increased OR for depression of 1.

Both Zwart et al's and our study found similar patterns for anxiety disorders as well. Hagen et al15 reported that the Supporf for muscoskeletal symptoms (including pain) increased Neomycin Sulfate Solution for Irrigation (Neosporin-GU)- FDA increasing headache frequency.

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